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What are the requirements for brushless DC motors for drones?

Release time:2024/03/14

What are the requirements for brushless DC motors for drones?

The central part of the brushless motor is a component with silicon steel sheets and coil windings. This core does not rotate and is called the stator. Surrounding the stator is an outer rotor component, which contains a yoke and a ring of permanent magnets. In a single-phase motor, when electricity is fed into the stator, a magnetic field is created that attracts and repels the magnets in the rotor, causing the rotor to rotate 180 degrees. To keep spinning, the electromagnet's magnetic poles switch every 180 degrees. This is how the motor moves to create power. Typically, the motors found on drones are three-phase motors, but the basic principle remains the same.

The quality of the motor windings plays an important role in the performance of the drone motor, and the number of coils is directly related to the magnitude of the electromagnetic force. If it rotates one or more times around a circle, the distribution of the magnetic field will change, so the electromagnetic force will be affected, and the electromagnetic force will directly affect the output power of the motor. Therefore, once the number of windings is changed, it will directly affect the performance of the drone. There are currently two types of unmanned motor windings: manual winding and machine winding. Manual winding is more expensive. Machine winding requires a wire feeder and the slot full rate is difficult to control. High-power and high-efficiency motors on the market are manually wound.

Brushless motors lift the plane into the sky and keep the camera level. During flight, the vibration amplitude of the drone motor has an important impact on performance. As the drone's acceleration and weight increase, it will put more stress on the entire motor system. In order to improve the efficiency of drone motors, brushless motors must be small in size, have high output power, and reduce power consumption. Motor efficiency can only be achieved by increasing the motor size, but drone motors must be compact and high-power to be installed on drones. . In order to increase the output power, the rated torque, speed and rated speed of the motor need to be increased. The increase in torque tends to increase the size of the motor. At the same time, the UAV motor has a higher fundamental frequency and carrier frequency, and the impact of eddy current losses generated in the windings becomes greater. In addition, during operation, the conductor resistivity increases as the temperature of the coil increases, effectively increasing the heat dissipation of the armature, which can suppress and reduce the resistance of the armature to improve efficiency.

The drone can hover and perform aerial photography. When the sensor fusion inertial measurement function detects an angle change, the motor can be adjusted to rotate in the opposite direction to achieve stable flight in the specified direction. Professional-grade drones require at least four to six brushless motors to drive the drone's rotors, and the motor-driven controller controls the drone's speed and direction. The total maximum pulling force of the multi-rotor motors should not be less than 1.5 times the total weight of the drone, and preferably more than 2 times. The motor control system is very important for the stability of the drone. The motor system of professional-grade drones is more accurate and reliable. This is the direction in which motors in the field of drone motors need to be improved.

Consumer-grade drones use brushless DC motors, which require strict performance testing and technical verification systems. There are also high requirements for motor structural design and motor control algorithms to ensure product reliability. Ningbo Nide Mechanical Equipment Co., Ltd. focuses on providing customers with one-stop motor manufacturing solutions. We provide UAV motor stator assembly lines, UAV motor stator manufacturing lines, UAV motor outer rotor production lines, and UAV motor stator assembly lines for customers in different countries. Motor accessories, such as NdFeB magnets, bearings, shafts, motor casings, etc. We can customize and develop drone motor manufacturing equipment according to market and customer needs, and assist customers in developing small, lightweight, and powerful drone motor products, covering aerial photography drones, FPV traversing drones, agricultural drones, Plant protection drones, single-rotor drones, multi-rotor drones, fixed-wing drones, etc.

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