Which motor is best for new energy electric vehicle?
As the only way for the future automobile industry to transform to green and efficient, new energy vehicles have a very broad prospect. With the vigorous development of the new energy automobile industry, the entire automobile industry chain is undergoing rapid iterative upgrades, and the market scale has grown rapidly. As we all know, different types of motors are widely used in different automotive fields due to their different characteristics. The following introduces the motors of several new energy vehicles.Advantages and disadvantages of different new energy vehicle motors
1. DC motor
A DC motor uses a DC current from the car's battery that is sent to the rotor windings through a spring-loaded carbon or lead "brush" that provides energy to the rotating contacts connected to the wire windings. Every few degrees of rotation, the brushes power a new set of contacts. When the motor shaft of the car rotates, it successively causes the polarity of the electromagnets on the rotor to reverse.
The housing surrounding the rotor electromagnetic windings has permanent magnets. The advantages are lower initial cost, higher reliability, and easier motor control. Changing the voltage can adjust the speed of the motor, and it can also change the current, which in turn controls its torque. Disadvantages include lower service life, as well as the cost of maintaining brushes and contacts. Therefore, except for some Railway locomotives, this type of motor is rarely used in transportation.
2. Brushless DC motor
This motor uses an external motor controller to alternately switch the various field windings, from positive to negative, to brushes and their Maintenance is eliminated, which in turn generates a rotating magnetic field.
The advantages are long service life, high efficiency and low maintenance costs. The downsides are higher initial cost, more complex motor speed controllers, and typically three Hall effect sensors are required to properly phase the stator winding current. The switching of the stator windings causes torque pulsations, and the transmitted torque increases and decreases periodically. This type of motor is very popular in the small car market such as electric bicycles and scooters, and is used in some auxiliary automotive applications, such as electric power steering assistance.
3. Permanent magnet synchronous motor
Physically, BLDC and PMSM motors look the same. Both have permanent magnets on the rotor and field windings in the stator. The difference is that instead of using a DC current and periodically opening and closing the various windings, which in turn spins the permanent magnets, the PMSM operates on a continuous sinusoidal AC current. It means that there is no torque fluctuation, only one Hall effect sensor is needed to determine the rotor speed and position, so it is more efficient.
The advantage is its power density as well as its strong starting torque. The disadvantage is that when the power supply is not high-speed, a back electromotive force will be generated, which will cause resistance and heat to demagnetize the motor. This kind of motor plays a part in the power steering and braking system of the car, and has become the first choice for the motor design of most battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles.
At present, permanent magnet synchronous motors are most suitable for electric vehicles. Depending on the position of the magnets, they are classified as internal permanent magnet motors or surface permanent magnet motors. These are the two most commonly used electric motors in cars because of their robustness, high efficiency, high power and relatively simple technology.
NIDE Group provides a variety of new energy vehicle motor solutions, providing customers with a complete motor manufacturing production line, including DC motor assembly line, brushless motor assembly line, permanent magnet motor manufacturing line, stator and rotor assembly line, and motor accessories. We can also design other different motor manufacturing solutions according to customer needs, such as universal motor manufacturing, induction motor manufacturing, servo motor manufacturing, AC motor manufacturing and so on.